Now that we have covered the values of all the chess pieces and how to set them up, it's time to learn how they move. Initially, the chess pieces may appear unfamiliar, but with practice, they will become second nature to you. Let's start with the pawn, which is considered the least powerful piece individually, but there are more pawns on the board than any other piece. It is crucial to understand how to coordinate their movements effectively. At the beginning of the game, each side possesses eight pawns, aligned on the 2nd and 7th ranks as you have already learned. The primary role of the pawn in the early stages of the game is to gain control of the center of the board and ensure the protection of the king.
Let me explain how the pawn moves in chess. During its first move, a pawn has the choice to move forward one square or two squares. However, it's important to note that after the first move, pawns can only move ahead one square at a time. In this example, the E2 pawn can move to either E3 or E4 because it's the pawn's first move. But once it's on E4, it can only move to E5.
The pawn has several distinct characteristics. Firstly, it is the only piece that is unable to move backwards. As we delve into Part Three of the Academy, it is important to exercise caution in order to prevent our pawn structure from becoming over-extended. Further details on this topic will be covered later.
Furthermore, unlike other chess pieces, the pawn has a unique capturing mechanism. While pawns normally move in a straight line, they capture in a diagonal manner. This aspect often poses a challenge for players. For instance, in the given scenario, the white pawn situated at D3 has the ability to capture the black pawn positioned on C4. However, it cannot capture the neighboring black pawn at D4. This is because the white pawn on D3 is effectively blocked by the black pawn on D4, leaving it with no available capture moves.
Although they may be small, pawns possess tremendous potential. Their greatest strength lies in their ability to promote. When a pawn reaches the opposite end of the chessboard, it can be transformed into any other piece on the board, with the exception of the king. This includes the queen, rook, knight, or bishop. While promoting to a queen is the most common choice, there are rare occasions where alternative pieces are chosen, which I will explain shortly.
In this position, what would be your recommended move for white?
In this position, it's white's turn to move. Which player do you think will promote first, white or black?
White starts with H4. Then black will play A5. White continues with H5, A4, H6, A3, H7, A2, and finally H8. White reaches the promotion square faster.
Now, let's make it a bit more challenging. It's black's turn to move. What move would you suggest?
This position is known as “Zugzwang” in chess. It means that being forced to move will worsen your position. Both players are in a difficult situation where any move they make will have negative consequences. For example, if it's white's turn, the only legal move is D3 to D4, allowing black to capture the pawn. Conversely, if it were black's turn and they played E4 (the only legal move), white could capture that pawn. Hence, it's a mutual Zugzwang position, where whoever's turn it is will be at a significant disadvantage.
Let's consider a more complex setup. Imagine you're playing with the black pieces. White has two options: either E3 or E4. Let's explore both scenarios. If white plays E3, what would be your response?
Now, let's examine the position where white plays E4 as the first move. What would you do?
In this situation, we can observe that if white plays E3, black's best move is F5. On the other hand, if white plays E4, black's optimal move is F6. In both cases, white will lose a pawn because they had to move first. Therefore, regardless of whose turn it is, the player making the move will end up losing. Take your time and contemplate this on your own.
Now, take a look at this position. What do you think is the best move for white?
The key idea here is that any move black makes will lead to self-destruction. Black is in a Zugzwang state, where any move they play will have negative consequences. For instance, if black plays C4, white can capture the pawn with D takes C4, winning a pawn. Similarly, if black plays D5, white can capture the pawn with E takes D5, resulting in a winning position. Lastly, if black plays G5, white can respond with H takes G5. Black is trapped in Zugzwang, making any move disadvantageous.
Now, let's delve into one of the more challenging chess rules, en passant, which translates to “in passing” in French. Here's how it works: Suppose a white pawn on square E has advanced to the 5th rank. This pawn effectively keeps an eye on the F and D pawns of black, due to a specific rule. If either of those black pawns advances two squares, the white pawn has the option to capture it diagonally as if it had only moved one square. For example, if black plays D5, white can capture en passant by playing E takes D6. There are two important conditions to remember. First, en passant can only be executed once. If white chooses not to capture the pawn immediately after black plays D5, the opportunity is lost forever. Second, if white has a pawn on E5 and black has a pawn on D6, white cannot capture en passant if black plays D6 to D5. This rule only applies when a pawn moves two squares forward, passing an enemy pawn residing on its 5th rank. Additionally, remember that you only have one chance to capture en passant. Here are a couple of exercises involving en passant.
Now, in this position, black plays D5. Can you show me all the possible captures for white?